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Tiger bells over Eurasia


First of all I want to thank my wife Elly. She was the first of us to notice a face on a jingle bell, in the National Museum in Manila; she named it a 'frog bell'. From the moment that I decided to trace the history of these bells, which by then we called 'tiger bells', she always carried out the language checks, addition after addition, version after version. Moreover, over a period of more than 40 years we made many trips together, from trekking in the hinterlands of SE Mindanao to traveling through Lapland, to find out more about the tiger bells.
Secondly I want to thank my former colleague and long time friend, anthropologist Hendrik Wittenberg. When we met in 1976 little did he and I know that the story of the tiger bells would take such a hold on us for such a long time. From a skeptic follower of the developments Hendrik became more and more convinced that indeed there was a story worth telling. He followed all developments closely and never stopped giving tips and hints on how to deepen and broaden the scope of the search. The fact that I kept to my very first questions (how old are these bells; how did they get to the places and people where they were, and sometimes still are; is the tiger bell a migration tracer?) was to me, not being an anthropologist, the only way to prevent myself from getting lost in a mer à boire of speculation and guess work, mainly because up to now very little is known about the tiger bells. Now that at least some answers are found, it is possible to expand the scope of the search. Therefore I invite everyone interested to continue the search for more information in order to fill the still numerous gaps in the history of the tiger bells.

For now I want to thank all the people who have already given their contribution to the story. Their names are given in alphabetical order:

      • Alzamar, Amy
      • Beiner, Judith (Florida, USA)
      • Boer, Walter and Emmy van de Ven (The Netherlands)
      • Bliek, Wilmar (Spain)
      • Brandeis, Hans - Berlin (Germany)
      • Budde, Anton - Nijkerk (The Netherlands)
      • Burg, Marcel van den, Aarde, Werelds wonen furniture - Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
      • Chantrenne, Claire; curator Asia, Music Instruments Museum - Brussels (Belgium)
      • Cornelius, John, (USA), through Flickr
      • Dekker, Peter - Mandarin Mansion
      • Dumanhug, Ching - Samal, (The Philippines)
      • Firl, Gerold (USA)
      • Fisher, M.
      • Fritch, K.
      • Gan Tjang Tek, dr. curator Ethnological Museum - Leyden (The Netherlands)
      • Groote, Hugo de - Amersfoort (The Netherlands)
      • Haaft, Arnoud ten ((The Netherlands)
      • Haasteren, Cor van; (The Netherlands)
      • Hadjidakis, Marco - The Hague (The Netherlands)
      • Hanggai Folk-rockgroup - Peking (China)
      • Heubers, Dolf - Polsbroek, (The Netherlands)
      • Huijksloot, Rinus van - Delft (The Netherlands)
      • Jong, Christine de - Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
      • Jurling, Arie - Veldhoven (The Netherlands)
      • Koch, Annemarieke - Soest (The Netherlands)
      • Lasi, Yousef (Pakistan)
      • Lauren, Eddy - Kuta (Bali, Indonesia)
      • Leofsky, Dorothy (USA)
      • Lim-Reid, Irene, Bareo Gallery - Singapore
      • Luquin, Elisabeth - Paris (France)
      • Lux, Harald (Germany)
      • Lynx (USA)
      • Manuel, E. Arsenio - Quezon City (The Philippines)
      • McLachlan, Sean
      • McCracken, Clifton (Florida, USA)
      • Meulen, I van der ((The Netherlands)
      • Oana, prof. Ovidiu (Rumania)
      • Orsel, Annemarie and Henk - Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
      • Otter, Elisabeth den, curator Tropenmuseum - Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
      • Po, Jane, Berkeley (USA)
      • Quiritan, Vicky
      • Residents of Long House Rumah Jamping (Sarawak, Malaysia)
      • Roszel, Thomas - Jakarta (Indonesia)
      • Sax, Joel Gazis - Claremont (California)
      • Scicluna, Leonard - Qormi, (Malta)
      • Sellato, Bernard - Jakarta, (Indonesia)
      • Sidky, dr. Muhammad Humayun (USA)
      • Sisial (USA)
      • SNK_1408 (South Korea)
      • Suyker, Toos, en Verdiessen, Jan - Hurwenen (The Netherlands)
      • Takacs, Jeno (Hungary)
      • Timoshenko, Dmitri - Tver (Russia)
      • Ulbrich, Tom and Dinh, Bui Kim (Vietnam)
      • Verzendaal, Hans en Marijke - Uithuizen (The Netherlands)
      • Wilkinson, Fred
      • Wulff, Inger; curator Danish National Museum - Copenhagen (Denmark)

Museums, enterprises, etc.

        • Aarde, werelds wonen furniture - Amsterdam. (The Netherlands)
        • Columbine Films - Copenhagen (Denmark)
        • Danish National Museum - Copenhagen (Denmark)
        • Elf Aquitaine Indonesia - Jakarta (Indonesia)
        • Ethnological Museum - Leyden The Netherlands)
        • Ethnological Museum - Vienna (Austria)
        • Griffin Galery, (Florida, USA)
        • LSC Metal Finishing - Qormi (Malta)
        • Mankunegara Kraton - Surakarta (Indonesia
        • Mausoleum Sir Richard Burton - Mortlake (UK)
        • Mission Museum - Steyl (The Netherlands)
        • Municipal museum, - Figueira da Foz (Portugal)
        • Musée d' Avalonnois - Avallon (France)
        • Musée Quay Branly - Paris (France)
        • National Museum of Thailand - Bangkok (Thailand)
        • National Museum - Jakarta (Indonesia)
        • National Museum - Kuching (Sarawak, Malaysia)
        • Nijmegen University Museum - Nijmegen (The Netherlands)
        • Nusantara Museum shop - Delft (The Netherlands)
        • Regional Museum - Medan (Sumatra, Indonesia)
        • Thai Home Industries - Bangkok (Thailand)
        • Thethe Dragon Antique dealers (South Korea)
        • Tropen museum - Amsterdam (The Netherlands)
        • VPRO Omroepvereniging - Hilversum (The Netherlands)
        • Wereld Museum - Rotterdam (The Netherlands)
        • Yiwu Ekia Pet Products factory - Zhejiang Province (China)

Literature and reference works

        • Album of Filipino types Volume III
        • An investigation of early Chinese bronze mirrors at the Harvard university art museums by Susan D. Costello, Harvard University, 2004
        • Art in Celebes, by Walter Kaudern, 1944
        • Art in Siberia, by Maria Czaplicka, Valentina Gorbatcheva, Marina Federova, publ. by Parkstone Press International, New York (USA) 2008
        • Dancing demons of Mongolia, Nieuwe Kerk, Amsterdam (Neth.) publ. By
          V+K Publishing / Imerc
        • Grove's dictionary of music
        • Hornbill and Dragon, by Bernard Sellato, publ. By Elf Aquitaine Indonesia
        • Iban migration into Sarawak, by J. J.Guang
        • Life in a longhouse, Hedda Morrison, publ. By Summer Times Publishing, Singapore
        • Maiden of the Buhong sky, a Bagobo folk epic, by E. Arsenio Manuel, publ. by University of the Philippines Press, 1958
        • Malang, Sufis, and Mystics; an ethnographic and historical study of shamanism in Afghanistan, published in the Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 49, No. 2 (1990), 275-301
        • Materials on the fine arts of the Siberian people, in the 19th and early 20th century, by S.V. Ivanov (original title: Materialy po izobrazitel'nomu iskusstvu narodov sibiri)
        • Music in Flores by Jaap Kunst Brill Archives 1944
        • Peoples of the Golden Triangle, by Paul and Elaine Lewis, publ. by Thames and Hudsons Ltd. London (UK)
        • Power and Gold, the Barbier-Mueller Museum, Geneva, publ. By Prestel verlag, Switzerland
        • Puyuma bells, The Markers of Honour, Passage and Social Status by Lancini Jen-Hao Cheng, Sydney
        • Schwerter von Celebes, by Foy, 1899
        • Shamanic regalia in the far north, by Patricia Rieff Anawalt, published by Thames and Hudson, 2014
        • Shamanism in Siberia, by M. C. Czaplicka
        • Shamanism: an encyclopedia of World beliefs, by Mariko Namba
        • The Naga's, hill people of Northeast India, Julian Jacobs, published by Thames and Hudson
        • The psycho-mental complex of the Tungus, by S. M. Shirokogoroff (see: website below)
        • Three shaman costumes, Danish National Museum, Copenhagen (Denmark)
        • Travels through Borneo
        • Tuwaang attends a wedding, by E. Arsenio Manuel, publ. by Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1975
        • WikiPedia Internet Encyclopedia
        • Wild tribes of Davao district, by Fay Cooper Cole, publ. by Chicago Field Museum of Natural History 1913

Websites and webshops

        • 3 Worlds – The shamanism website
        • Borneo Artefacts' webshop
        • China History Forum
        • Ethnic weapons forum
        • Ethnix Tribal and African Arts
        • Harmonic Healing webshop
        • Nonsuch Gallery
        • Potala World webshop
        • Sea Eagle Coins, webshop
        • Sporting Collection webshop
        • (e-Bay)
Some of these addresses might not work anymore; if so then try to enter the name of the site in a search program
To all people, institutes and enterprises that have shared their knowledge with me and the followers of this site I would like to say:
Many, many thanks!
We try to give full credits of all our sources, for quotes, text and photographs. Unfortunately much information on the Internet is not properly credited. When this material is interesting for our search we do take it up in our report. However, if you find any information or picture of which you know that it is not free for use in these pages please inform us and tell us where we can contact the owner(s) of the copyrights.

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